EDUCE Overview Copyright 2009 Nikolas S. Boyd.
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Joined Clauses


Retain conjunctions that join clauses together.


Conjunctions can be categorized as coordinate, subordinate, or correlative. The coordinate conjunctions connect elements of equal rank - words, phrases, clauses. The subordinate conjunctions connect dependent elements to independent ones. The correlative conjunctions are used in pairs - one complementing the other. The following table provides a representative sample of the various kinds of conjunctions.

Category Subcategory Examples
coordinate additive also, and, besides, both, likewise, moreover, then
disjunctive but, either, else, or, neither, nor, other, otherwise
final consequently, for, hence, so, thus, therefore
subordinate reason as, because, for, hence, inasmuch, since, whereas, wherefore
degree as, else, other, otherwise, rather, than
condition if, provided, since, unless
place after, before, whence, whereat, wherever
time as, before, ere, since, still, till, until, when, whenever
correlative both-and both boys and girls are going
either-or either boys or girls will go
neither-nor neither boys nor girls will go
if-then if you fail, then you must try again


Use joined clauses when


Many independent clauses describe conditions or situations that can occur in the world (and thus in a problem domain). Situations, conditions, and constraints are generally testable and verifiable. These kinds of statements hold special significance throughout software development, from requirements through code, because they usually describe some qualities that need to be established and maintained (enforced). Thus, the primary object responsibility categories include ensuring quality.

Many complete nuclear sentences stand on their own (as independent clauses), but some statements only make sense in relation to others, especially when one of them (a dependent clause) describes a possible situation, a condition, or a constraint.

While simple sentences can stand alone, you can also compose them to describe situations.

a building stores type 1 hazardous chemicals and
that building also stores type 2 hazardous chemicals

While comparative relations can stand alone, you can also compose them to describe conditions or constraints.

a building's drum storage count equals its drum storage limit and
a neighboring building's drum storage count equals its drum storage limit


You can use a condition description to simplify some conditions. The previous condition can be simplified as follows:

a full storage building = a storage building whose drum count equals its drum storage limit
a full storage building neighbors another full storage building

You can pair clauses to produce a condition - action pair that describes a behavior rule or a business rule. Consider the following example of a condition - action pair:

the EPA closes a chemical storage facility if ...
the chemical storage facility violates a safety regulation

You can use a clause summary to simplify some rules. Consider the following simplification of the foregoing rule.

storage facility closure = the EPA closes a chemical storage facility
safety violation = a chemical storage facility violates a safety regulation
a safety violation triggers a storage facility closure

Some correlative conjunctions are coordinate and some are subordinate. Thus, you can treat them as described above based on their usage.